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Volume: 2
Issue: 11
Date: 14-Jul-94


Table of Contents:

I.    LDF: Breakthrough Study May Mean Quicker Testing &
      Diagnosis for Lyme Disease
II.   LYMENET: Researchers Seek Missouri and Illinois Ticks
III.  RES MICROBIOL: A new genomic species in Borrelia
      burgdorferi sensu lato isolated from Japanese ticks
IV.   J MED ENTOMOL: Prevalence of Borrelia (Spirochaetaceae)
      spirochetes in Texas ticks
V.    J BACTERIOL: gyrB mutations in coumermycin A1-resistant
      Borrelia burgdorferi
VI.   J MED ENTOMOL: Suppression of Ixodes scapularis (Acari:
      Ixodidae) nymphs in a large residential community
VII.  INFECT IMMUN: Tick transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi to
      inbred strains of mice induces an antibody
      response to P39 but not to outer surface protein A
VIII. INT J MED MICROBIOL: Seasonal distribution of borreliae in
      Ixodes ricinus ticks
IX.   INT J MED MICROBIOL: Serological distinction between
      syphilis and Lyme borreliosis
X.    How to Subscribe, Contribute, and Get Back Issues


Newsletter:

***********************************************************************
*                  The National Lyme Disease Network                  *
*                         LymeNet Newsletter                          *
***********************************************************************


IDX#                Volume 2 - Number 11 - 7/14/94
IDX#                            INDEX
IDX#
IDX#  I.    LDF: Breakthrough Study May Mean Quicker Testing &
IDX#        Diagnosis for Lyme Disease
IDX#  II.   LYMENET: Researchers Seek Missouri and Illinois Ticks
IDX#  III.  RES MICROBIOL: A new genomic species in Borrelia
IDX#        burgdorferi sensu lato isolated from Japanese ticks
IDX#  IV.   J MED ENTOMOL: Prevalence of Borrelia (Spirochaetaceae)
IDX#        spirochetes in Texas ticks
IDX#  V.    J BACTERIOL: gyrB mutations in coumermycin A1-resistant
IDX#        Borrelia burgdorferi
IDX#  VI.   J MED ENTOMOL: Suppression of Ixodes scapularis (Acari:
IDX#        Ixodidae) nymphs in a large residential community
IDX#  VII.  INFECT IMMUN: Tick transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi to
IDX#        inbred strains of mice induces an antibody
IDX#        response to P39 but not to outer surface protein A
IDX#  VIII. INT J MED MICROBIOL: Seasonal distribution of borreliae in
IDX#        Ixodes ricinus ticks
IDX#  IX.   INT J MED MICROBIOL: Serological distinction between

IDX#        syphilis and Lyme borreliosis
IDX#  X.    How to Subscribe, Contribute, and Get Back Issues
IDX#


QUOTE OF THE WEEK:

     "We at LDF highly recommend that doctors and laboratories
      begin using this [enhanced ELISA] test immediately."


     -- Karen Vanderhoof-Forschner, chair of the Board of Directors
        of the Lyme Disease Foundation (See Section I)



I.    LDF: Breakthrough Study May Mean Quicker Testing & Diagnosis
          for Lyme Disease
------------------------------------------------------------------
Sender: The Lyme Disease Foundation
Press Release -- For Immediate Release: June 28, 1994
Contact: Marlene Ibsen (203) 525-0088


(HARTFORD) -- A study released by Dr. Steven E. Schutzer of the
University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey may prove to be
an important breakthrough in Lyme disease diagnosis and treatment.


"Early and Specific Antibody Response to OspA in Lyme Disease," to be
published in this week in the _Journal of Clinical Investigation_,
details Dr. Schutzer's development of a test which detects a human
immune system response to Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacteria which
causes Lyme disease, as early as a few days after a tick bite occurs.
The tests is a refined version of the ELISA test, which is currently
used to detect immune system responses in Late Lyme patients.


"This study is a major breakthrough for researchers, doctors and
patients," says Karen Vanderhoof-Forschner, chair of the Board of
Directors of the Lyme Disease Foundation (LDF).  "Dr. Schutzer's trials
show early infection, and because half of the patients tested were
German, and likely were infected with a different strain of Borrelia
burgdorferi that we have here in the U.S., Dr. Schutzer's version of
the immune system response test is probably one of the best tools
presently available for assisting doctors in diagnosing Lyme disease.
Any tool that speeds the diagnosis and treatment process has the
potential to help minimize the number of cases of severe infection.
We at LDF highly recommend that doctors and laboratories begin using
this test immediately."


While Schuter's findings are important, and may lead to quick diagnosis
and more effective treatment of Lyme disease, it should be understood
that this test _does not prove existence of the bacteria_ in the body;
it is a tool to assist in clinical diagnosis.


Dr. Schutzer's test can be easily instituted by laboratories across the
country which are already performing the standard ELISA test.  The
refinement process is not patented and is available to anyone who
requests specifications on the process.



=====*=====


II.   LYMENET: Researchers Seek Missouri and Illinois Ticks
-----------------------------------------------------------
Sender: Ivone Bruno, Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville
       Joe Mehranfar, Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville


We are graduate students of the Biology department of the Southern
Illinois University at Edwardsville.  Our research is a continuation
of a study done in 1989 by Dr. Catherine Santanello and Dr. Dorothy
Feir from Saint Louis University, which suggested the incidence of the
Lyme disease etiological agent; the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in
different ticks species in the Eastern Missouri area.  We will attempt
to identify the vectors of Borrelia burgdorferi mainly in the Illinois
and Missouri states but we will include some other states.  The ticks
will be collected, identified, staged, and dissected.  The slides will
be prepared from midgut smears, and processed using the Indirect
Fluorescent antibody test with H5332 as the primary monoclonal anti-
Borrelia burgdorferi.  By this method positive smears for Borrelia
burgdorferi will be identified.  In another phase of our research we
will attempt to culture the spirochetes in the BSK-II medium.


We would like to use this opportunity to let all the LymeNet readers
know that we are interested in any ticks (alive) that you can collect
for us, all we need is the date and site of collection and if it comes
from any particular host.  All that we request is that the ticks are
placed in a closed container with a humidified swab inside.  Please
send it to this address:


              Dr. Santanello
              Biology Department
              P.O. Box 1651
              SIUE, IL  62026


We will gladly accept any information or contribution that may help us
with our research.  If you have any questions please contact Dr.
Santanello at (618) 692-2962.  Thank you.



=====*=====


III.  RES MICROBIOL: A new genomic species in Borrelia burgdorferi
     sensu lato isolated from Japanese ticks
------------------------------------------------------------------
REFERENCE: Res Microbiol 1993 Jul-Aug;144(6):467-73
AUTHORS: Postic D, Belfaiza J, Isogai E, Saint Girons I, Grimont PA,
        Baranton G
ORGANIZATION: Unite de Bacteriologie moleculaire et medicale, Institut
             Pasteur, Paris.
ABSTRACT:


Five Borrelia strains (Ika2, HO14, Cow611C, 0612 and F63B) isolated
from Ixodes ovatus ticks in Japan were analysed by DNA-DNA
hybridization experiments, ribotyping, pulsed-field gel
electrophoresis and protein electrophoresis.  DNA relatedness set
these strains in a new genomic species within the Borrelia burgdorferi
complex; this species appears to be restricted to Japan and could be
non-pathogenic for humans.  The ribotype and pulsotype of strain Ika2
were atypical of the new genomic species.



=====*=====


IV.   J MED ENTOMOL: Prevalence of Borrelia (Spirochaetaceae)
     spirochetes in Texas ticks
--------------------------------------------------------------
REFERENCE: J Med Entomol 1994 Mar;31(2):297-301
AUTHORS: Rawlings JA, Teltow GJ
ORGANIZATION: Texas Department of Health, Austin 78756.
ABSTRACT:


Between 1990 and 1992, ticks from eight Texas parks were collected and
analyzed to determine the prevalence of spirochete-infected ticks.
Borrelia spirochetes were detected in 1.03% of 5,141 Amblyomma
americanum (L.) adults examined, a species Texas residents often
encounter.  No spirochetes were observed in the other tick species
tested.



=====*=====


V.    J BACTERIOL: gyrB mutations in coumermycin A1-resistant Borrelia
     burgdorferi
----------------------------------------------------------------------
REFERENCE: J Bacteriol 1994 May;176(10):3072-5
AUTHORS: Samuels DS, Marconi RT, Huang WM, Garon CF
ORGANIZATION: Laboratory of Vectors and Pathogens, Rocky Mountain
             Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and
             Infectious Diseases, Hamilton, Montana
ABSTRACT:


We have isolated and characterized mutants of Borrelia burgdorferi
that are resistant to the antibiotic coumermycin A1, which targets the
B subunit of DNA gyrase.  Mutants had either 100- or 300-fold higher
resistance to coumermycin A1 than wild-type B. burgdorferi.  In each
case, a single point mutation in the gyrB gene converted Arg-133 to
Gly or Ile.  Mutations in the homologous Arg residue of Escherichia
coli DNA gyrase are also associated with resistance to coumarin
antimicrobial agents.



=====*=====


VI.   J MED ENTOMOL: Suppression of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)
     nymphs in a large residential community
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
REFERENCE: J Med Entomol 1994 Mar;31(2):206-11
AUTHORS: Schulze TL, Jordan RA, Vasvary LM, Chomsky MS, Shaw DC,
        Meddis MA, Taylor RC, Piesman J
ORGANIZATION: Division of Epidemiology, Occupational and Environmental
             Health, New Jersey State Department of Health, Trenton
ABSTRACT:


To determine the feasibility of suppressing Ixodes scapularis Say
populations in a large, hyperendemic residential community, several
rates of granular carbaryl were applied by ground and air to the shrub
layer and wooded buffers of a forested residential community during
the peak activity period of nymphs.  Granular carbaryl significantly
reduced the abundance of I. scapularis nymphs on Peromyscus leucopus
Raphinesque.  Control nymphal ticks ranged between 70.0 and 90.3%.
The use of properly timed acaricide applications to I. scapularis
habitat within residential communities can provide an effective means
of reducing exposure to I. scapularis nymphs, which are chiefly
responsible for transmitting Borrelia burgdorferi to humans.



=====*=====


VII.  INFECT IMMUN: Tick transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi to
     inbred strains of mice induces an antibody response to P39 but
     not to outer surface protein A
---------------------------------------------------------------------
REFERENCE: Infect Immun 1994 Jun;62(6):2625-7
AUTHORS: Golde WT, Kappel KJ, Dequesne G, Feron C, Plainchamp D,
        Capiau C, Lobet Y
ORGANIZATION: Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers
             for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health
             Service, Fort Collins, Colorado
ABSTRACT:


Natural tick transmission of infection by Borrelia burgdorferi induces
a very different serum antibody response than needle inoculation of
spirochetes.  We present data, obtained by using the mouse model, that
show that the OspA response was barely detectable, whereas all animals
developed significant anti-P39 titers after exposure to B. burgdorferi-
infected ticks.



=====*=====


VIII. INT J MED MICROBIOL: Seasonal distribution of borreliae in
     Ixodes ricinus ticks
-----------------------------------------------------------------
REFERENCE: Int J Med Microbiol Virol Parasitol Infect Dis 1994
          Jan;280(3):423-31
AUTHORS: Hubalek Z, Halouzka J, Juricova Z, Svobodova S
ORGANIZATION: Institute of Systematic and Ecological Biology, Academy
             of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic
ABSTRACT:


Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected by flagging vegetation of a mixed
oak forest in South Moravia (Czech Republic) at regular two-month
intervals from March 1991 to March 1992 and examined for borreliae
by darkfield microscopy.  Mean annual proportions of infected ticks
were 17.2% (15.4% to 21.2% monthly) in females (F), 18.6% (11.8% to
25.9%) in males (M), and 16.3% (12.4% to 20.9%) in nymphs (N); the
differences among monthly values were insignificant.  However,
monthly proportions of intensively infected ticks containing more
than 100 borreliae fluctuated widely, from 0.0% to 7.7% (annual
mean 3.3%) in F, from 0.0% to 5.6% (mean 2.4%) in M, and from 0.0% to
5.7% (mean 1.9%) in N; the differences among months were significant,
and the peak prevalence values were found in July (F, M) or November
(N).  Mean numbers of borreliae per infected tick reached their peak in
September for both adult and nymphal ticks while they were generally
low in spring.  The highest risk of infection with tick-borne
borreliae for vertebrates (including man) occurred in the study area

during the month of July; in that month, one either female or
nymphal I. ricinus containing more than 100 borreliae was encountered,
on the average, every 92 minutes of flagging.



=====*=====


IX.   INT J MED MICROBIOL: Serological distinction between syphilis
     and Lyme borreliosis
-------------------------------------------------------------------
REFERENCE: Int J Med Microbiol Virol Parasitol Infect Dis 1994
          Jan;280(3):319-24
AUTHORS: Rath PM, Marsch WC, Brade V, Fehrenbach F
ORGANIZATION: Department of Microbiology, Universitatskilinikum Rudolf
             Virchow, Berlin Germany.
ABSTRACT:


The serological distinction of an immune response to the agent of
syphilis, Treponema (T.) pallidum, and Lyme disease borreliae is
difficult due to the existence of cross-reacting antibodies.  In this
study, the immunoblot technique is used to compare the immune response
of sera from patients with syphilis or Lyme borreliosis to either T.
pallidum or Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi.  Patients with syphilis showed
an IgG response to the 17 and 15 kDa antigens of T. pallidum, whereas
sera from patients with Lyme borreliosis -- especially in late stages
of the disease -- reacted with the 95 and 19-17 kDa antigens of B.
burgdorferi.  Thus, IgG antibodies against low molecular weight
antigens of T. pallidum (17, 15 kDa) or B. burgdorferi (19-17 kDa) may
represent useful markers for the serological diagnosis of syphilis or
Lyme borreliosis.



=====*=====


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